Measles

It is an acute viral infection Characterised by high-grade fever, pathognomonic exanthema (koplick spots), a typical maculopapular rash.

Measles is caused by the Measles virus. measles is highly contagious, the virus replicates in the nose and throat of the infected child or adult .when someone with measles coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale them. The infected droplets may also land on a surface, where they remain active and contagious for several hours. You can contact the virus by putting your fingers in your mouth or nose or rubbing your eyes after touching the infected surface.

Incubation period: 10 -14 days

Clinical manifestations:

  • Fever
  • Coryza
  • Cough
  • Conjunctivitis (Conjunctival congestion and photophobia is also classical of measles which occurs before koplick spots appear)

Koplick spots a pathognomonic sign of measles are seen on days 2-3 of fever, spots are greyish white dots as small as grains of sand, having slight reddish areola, occasionally they are hemorrhagic. The temperature rises abruptly as the rash appears after reaching 104 degrees Fahrenheit.

The rash appears and fades in the cephalocaudal sequence, rash usually starts as faint macules on the upper lateral parts of the neck, especially behind the ears, along the hairline, and posterior part of the cheek. Lesions become maculopapular and spread rapidly over the entire face, neck, upper arm, the upper part of the trunk in the first 24 hours. During the next 24 hours rashes spread over back, abdomen, entire arms, and thighs, as it finally reaches feet on 2 and or 3 rd day, it begins to fade on the face.

The severity of the disease is directly related to the extent and confluence of rash. As rash disappears it leaves behind the branny desquamation and brownish discoloration which disappears within 7 -10 days.

Investigation: Measles RT-PCR

Complications :

  1. Ear infection (Otitis media)
  2. Bronchitis
  3. Pneumonia
  4. Encephalitis

Prevention: Isolation of patients is important from the seventh day of exposure to five days after rash appearance.

Treatment: Homoeopathy medicine

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